THE ROLE OF THE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IN ACHIEVING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES OF TURKEY AND UAE
Author(s): NIMA ALFARRA
This study aims to examine the reality of intellectual capital in the private universities of Turkey and UAE and the role of intellectual capital in enhancing their competitive advantage. In this regard, the study explores the extent to which each element of intellectual capital influences the competitive advantage of the universities under the study and whether there is a difference between universities in how to manage the intellectual capital that they own. Accordingly, the study first explains the definition of intellectual capital and its elements (human capital, structural capital, relational capital), as well as the definition of the competitive advantage and its dimensions and fields of achievement in the universities under the study. Besides, it also investigates the relationship between the administrative procedures followed by these universities in the management of intellectual capital and in enhancing their competitive advantage from several aspects (innovation, quality, flexibility, development, and quality of service). The study relied on the selection of a simple convenience sampling method of the population of private universities in Turkey and UAE by a descriptive analytical approach, so a survey was made to verify the approaches in the theoretical frameworks of the intellectual capital and its relation to the dependent variables, which is the competitive advantage. The hypotheses were tested based on statistical analysis programs. The statistical analysis points to several important results and implications. Findings of the study reveal that there is a statistically significant relationship between the ability of the private universities in Turkey and UAE to manage their intellectual capital and enhance their competitive advantage, while the management of human capital, structural capital, and relational capital seem to have a similar impact rate on the Turkish and UAE private universities in enhancing their competitive advantage. Findings of the study further indicates that there is no statistically significant difference in the average responses of sample members on the level of the availability of intellectual capital requirements and achievement of competitive advantage in the private universities in Turkey and UAE due to some variables like gender, age, qualifications, years of service, years of service in the current position, job title.